Artist interpretation of the Danum Vicus © Archaeological Services WYAS 2010. Drawn by Jon Prudhoe.


–  An urban area is to be identified by the collective presence of persons not bound there by the military or marriage such as traders, craftsmen, or veterans, and not dependants such as wives and children of soldiers

–  No urban area in South Yorkshire is certified other than those connected to military sites

–  The Danum fort developed the largest vicus in South Yorkshire

–  All the evidence for urbanisation in South Yorkshire is found in vici, such as pottery which might suggest Romanisation

–  A key source is the Stannington Diploma, recording imperial encouragement for soldiers to settle with natives

–  Evidence mostly points to an increased difficulty in urban life: the coin sequence at Danum ceases at AD388 suggesting the end to military presence, women and children are found inside the fort as well as more disorganised planning of space, forts such as Templeborough are found to have been rebuilt in a cruder fashion (and therefore unlikely to have been by the Roman army)

–  Only two villas are known for certain at Stancil and Oldcoates, with another potential three, which is relatively few compared to elsewhere in Roman Britain

–  Anglo-Saxon pottery has been found at sites of villas in southern Britain towards the end of the fourth century

–  Contemporary historical sources suggest an increase in Barbarian disruption across Britain crossing Hadrian’s Wall and raiding across the seas